This conference addresses the relationship between Europe and Christianity as an event of the past that has left us a historical legacy of several types in human life (cultural, artistic, architectonic, philosophical, moral, religious, etc.), and as a reality in the present with capacity to be a ferment for the future. In a first step, we will briefly and substantially present the most important milestones in the history of this fruitful and dramatic relationship, from its initial meeting until the present. From this historical framework we will ask ourselves about this relationship from a philosophical and theological point of view, with the assistance of five of the greatest European theologists (Hans Urs von Balthasar, Romano Guardini, Karl Rahner, Joseph Ratzinger and Olegario González). Finally, from the personal reflexion we will offer some guidelines about the possibilities and the current shape of this relationship, so while still keeping each side its identity, Christianity may indeed be a historical legacy to be assumed and transmitted, being this way a ferment of moral development in and spiritual growth for the future of Europe.