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Manuel Lucena Giraldo

Not just caudillos. Spanish America after independence URL:
Shortly before his death in 1830 in Santa Marta, Simón bolivar proclaimed "who serves in the revolution is ploughing in the sea". This prominent protagonist of independence also pointed out: "we have won freedom on the cost of everything else". Following these words, the organization of a stable civil and democratic order after independence would be a complicated task in the emancipated Hispanic America due to the specter of the warlords and the temptations for personal power. Nevertheless, as we will show in this conference, the push of the democratic experiments where the rule and not the exception, so this way the contemporary ideas of freedom found an adequate vehicle for expression, precisely when the United States, while standing divided due to the problem of slavery, was heading towards the terrible secession war.
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