Jerusalem is a holy city for the Jews, the Christians, and the Muslims. The Bible speaks about it several times. And in the book of Apocalypse it is mentioned how the celestial Jerusalem coming down from heaven is the new land of the end of times. Jerusalem is without doubts a city the leaves no one indifferent, and its history has marked the history of worshippers of all three great monotheist religions. But it is extremely interesting to know its past. In this conference we will contemplate a selection of the most important historical moments of the city between the second millennium BC, and the end of the 1st century AD, the biblical period by excellence. We will point out which is supposed to be the current relationship between the Bible and archaeology when studying the past of the region, and we will review the contributions that archaeology is doing for the comprehension of that period. We will speak about the impressive remains of the water supply systems left behind by the Jebusites in the first half of the second millennium BC. We will introduce the kings David and Solomon, some theories about their reigns, and possible remains related to them dating from the 10th century BC. We will also mention the king Hezekiah from the end of the 8th century BC, and some of the preparatory works he made to face the invasion of the Assyrian king Sennacherib. And finally, we will contemplate some of the remains of the Jerusalem of the 1st century AD, the Jerusalem of the magnificent temple extended by king Herod the Great, in which the New Testament locates the last days of Jesus of Nazareth, and where the modern Judaism and Christianity were born.