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Lecture Series

13, 15, 20 December 2011
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The participants summarise their talks

  • The culture of conversation
    (In italian, with simultaneous translation)
    Benedetta Craveri

    My aim with this conference is to review the founding moments of that conversational art that for three centuries, from the end of the 15th century and until the fall of the Old Regime, has been imposed with distinctive connotation in the lifestyle of the European elites. I will thus begin with the Italian humanist model, which was in elaboration since the reflexions of Pontano, who in his De Sermone (1499) inaugurates the European reflexion over conversation as a way of civil life. Later, I will remember the impact of the three major post-Renaissance pedagogical treaties: Il Cortegiano by Baltasar Castiglione (1528), Galateo by Giovanni della Casa (1558), and La civil conversazione(1574) by Stefano Guazzo. Three Italian writings that were extensively translated to other languages, and disseminated in Europe the code of conduct -what we would call now, the know-how- of the modern gentleman.

    Nevertheless, at the beginning of the 17th century, France makes the Italian model its own, copying it, internalizing it upon their needs, and giving it a new and original character. Until then, the theoretical debate about conversation and the ways of the civil life were an exclusive of the great humanists, and its teaching, beyond the contingencies of the small Italian courts to which one or other made reference, wanted to be universalized. Alternatively, in France the ideal "way of living" to be adopted does not come from above, but it is elaborated in small steps by the mundane elites, so it can latter be imposed as key distinction of the national character.

    For the first time in the history of Western civilization, an entire society looks in the mirror studying, analyzing, and systematically reflecting its own appearance and communication problems, and transforms this into the distinctive element of its identity. What is at game is the art of words being able to tame down the aggressiveness and foster consensus and social cohesion through a harmonious exchange. It is an art capable of unifying and at the same time separating, as well as capable of producing entertainment, pleasure, information, and culture.

    Precisely due to this collective reflexion, the conversation à la française took shape and, due to its different roles, needed to be at the core of the aristocratic society rites of the Old Regime.

    My purpose here is not to evoke in all of its multiple nuances the complex body of rules that have marked the art of conversation and have made of it a flagship of an entire civilization, but to see if this ephemeral art of the words traditionally associated to a world of privileged people has finally disappeared with the French Revolution, or if still has things to show us.

  • Public opinion in the XVIII century. Between orality and writing
    Roger Chartier
    In this conference I would like to firstly discuss about the concept of "origin" when historians use it to understand a rupture so decisive as the one happening in 1789 in France. This perspective pushes us to reconsider the operation, typical in all the literature devoted to the links between Enlightenment and Revolution, that points us to the gestures of rupture with the authorities in regards to the dissemination of "philosophical" ideas, so assuming a direct, automatic and transparent production of the actions through the thoughts. Against the classical definition that considers Enlightenment as a set of critical ideas, could it not be considered as a set of multiple practices guiding the worry for the common usefulness, whose objective is a new management of the spaces and populations, as well as mechanisms (intellectual, institutional, social, etc.) that impose a complete reorganization of the perception and organization of the social world? I will also pose three questions whose relevance seem to me important to understand the political and cultural mutations in the Century of Lights: the relationship between public opinion and popular opinions, the transformation of the reading practices, it is often understood as a "revolution of reading", and the role -or absence- of women in the construction of the new political space. Finally I will analyze the the appropriation of the Enlightenment by the French Revolution, which obliges us to review the notion of "precursors" and can suggest that, maybe, it was the Revolution who made the Enlightenment, this is, it was upon the occurrence of the event when a it was built a repertory of works and authors who supposedly had prepared it and announced it.
Fundación Juan March
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