Aurelio Arteta
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First of all, we need to clarify the nature of evil or damage to which we refer. As it is not a natural or necessary evil, but a social evil or a product of our freedom, and thus, the evil that one man inflicts to another. And not just any evil, which could be convenient or deserved, but an undeserved suffering. More specifically, not even the private evil, but the public evil, meaning that which is inflicted by a certain political power to many, or all, members of a community, an evil that summons reasons to become justified for the sake of a supposedly better future for this community.

Next, it is not any less convenient to make a few clarifications regarding certain dimensions or aspects of this evil, so we can choose the most relevant. And this way, I suggest focusing in the ordinary evil, which is left to a side in contemporary reflexion, in opposition to the extraordinary evil, whether it is in the shape of the Nazi Holocaust or the Soviet Gulag, which tends to monopolize theoretical reflexions. And without neglecting the past evil, subject of the so called "historical memory", I also propose the priority of the present evil due to our compromise with policy and moral. Thus, it is convenient to remind that together with evil committed and suffered, we also find that which has been wrongly allowed; this is, when to the figure of aggressor and victim, we also need to add in general the absence of commitment by the viewers, who -being the most numerous- through their behavior make the aggression possible or even facilitate its occurrence.

This way, this viewer, by neglecting to become an actor, becomes an accomplice of the evil that is taking place. They are not simply someone who passed by, but someone who has been presented with the option of taking part to avoid, or diminish, the occurrence of evil and has decided to remain absent. It is not an active complicity, but a passive one, although in many occasions not any less efficient than direct collaboration: Not doing something, or allowing something to happen, is also a way of making things happen; omission is nothing else than a kind of action. In opposition to the excuses that viewers may use, we have to highlight their responsibility due to conformism or indifference, as well as the terrible consequences of their omission of action.

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