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Salvador Giner

Republican reason, democracy and civic virtue URL:
Democracy in advanced societies faces structural problems that find their best solution in the deliberate, rational, and civic incorporation of their citizens in the "politeia". This is only possible through the implementation of moral universalism in the citizenship. In opposition to the havoc of the charismatic communitarianism on one side, and of possessive individualism on the other, the political philosophy of the civic republicanism offers some interesting exits. Nonetheless, the corporative interests, the neo-tribal nationalism, the mass-media culture, and the manipulation of the citizenship, among other things, conspire to hinder the progress of the republican ideal and the civic virtue. Even the rhetoric of some democratic governments, theoretically friendly to the republican position, suppose a barrier for the journey. An analysis, at the same time ethical an sociological, could attempt resolving these difficulties, especially if it assumes all the conflictive nature of the social life and conceives the human and civil rights as the result from the democratic conflict, as civic achievements of the human dignity instead of mere abstractions.
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