The brain enigma
One of the main goals of neuroscience is understanding the biological mechanisms responsible of the activity in the human mind. Without doubt, the brain is the most interesting and enigmatic organ of the human body, not only because it governs our organism, but also because it controls our behavior and allows us to communicate with other living beings. Particularly, the study of the cerebral cortex is the largest challenge of the coming centuries, as it represents the fundaments of our humanity; this is, the activity of the cerebral cortex is related with the capacities that differ humans from the rest of mammals. As Cajal would say, "knowing the brain is equivalent to finding material course of thought and will, surprising the intimate history of life in permanent duel with exterior energies". Thanks to the notable development and evolution of the brain, we are capable of doing extraordinary and extremely complex tasks such as writing a book, composing a symphony or inventing a computer. Without doubt, science has advanced dramatically in the last decades allowing us to study the human brain from all kind of angles -molecular, morphology, physiology and genetic-, although we have only come to scratch the surface of mysteries it holds. Even if it may sound surprising, we still lack answers to many of the basic questions in neuroscience, such as: What is the neuronal substrate that makes us humans? How is the brain altered, and how diseases like schizophrenia, Alzheimer, or depression are produced? How does the brain integrate simultaneously the information that is processed in the different cortical areas in order to provide us with a unified, continuos and coherent perception? All these fundamental questions, and many others, still lack answer even though we are witnessing many scientific advances in the present. In this conference we will present and discuss the different aspects of this long path to the knowledge on the most mysterious and passionate organ of the human being: the brain.