Europeans in America Lecture Series HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS

Europeans in America

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Carlos Martínez Shaw

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  1. Carlos Martínez ShawCarlos Martínez Shaw

    Es catedrático de Historia Moderna de la Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), licenciado en Historia por la Universidad de Sevilla y doctor en Historia por la Universidad de Barcelona. Fue vicerrector y presidió el Centro de Estudios de Historia Moderna Pierre Vilar en la Universidad de Barcelona.

    Sus campos de investigación son la historia marítima (pesca, almadrabas, construcción naval,  comercio marítimo) y el sistema comercial español del Atlántico y el Pacífico, con especial énfasis en las relaciones entre México y Perú con Filipinas, dentro de la perspectiva de la historia global.

    Ha impartido docencia y dirigido trabajos de investigación en diversas universidades europeas (École de Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales de París, Université de Toulouse-Le Mirail, Università di Cagliari, Università di Sassari) e hispanoamericanas (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata y Universidad Nacional de Salta, en Argentina, Universidad Católica de Quito en Ecuador y Universidad de Costa Rica).

    Ha sido distinguido por su labor científica con la Cruz de la Orden de Alfonso X el Sabio, el Premio Menéndez Pelayo del Institut d’Estudis Catalans, el doctorado honoris causa por la Universitat de Lleida, la Placa "Marc Bloch" a la Excelencia Historiográfica, la consideración de He-De Honorary Chair en la Tsing Hua University de Taiwán y la de Chevalier dans l’Ordre des Palmes Académiques de la République Française.

    Es miembro de número de la Real Academia de la Historia y de la Academia Europaea, y académico correspondiente de la Academia Nacional de la Historia de Argentina y de la Real Academia de San Romualdo de San Fernando (Cádiz).

     

The arrival of Crisobal Colón's ships to America marks the beginning of the installation of Europeans in America.  The Spanish were followed along the next two centuries by the Portuguese, the English, the French, and the Dutch. All of them had contact with the pre-existing populations, who were submitted to sovereignty and deprived of a good part of their territories. At the same time, the territorial occupation was combined with a display of the institutional mechanisms, that on one hand guaranteed the political domain, the economical exploitation, and the imposition of the European cultural guidelines; while on the other, it ensured the cohabitation between the occupants themselves, the maintenance of the bonds with the metropolis, and the defense of their interests against other powers present in the region.

The solutions given to the questions appearing along this process where several depending on the geographic conditions, the populations found, the moment of arrival, the circumstances of the emigration, and the political culture of each of the European nations. This way, the common elements of an occupation and colonizing process (with its global phenomenons of biological, agricultural, commercial, and cultural exchanges) are insufficient to include the diverse variations, which are very dependent (but not exclusive) on the origin of the colonizers, so it is easier to reconstruct each of the fundamental models than attempting to present extremely general characteristics for the entire continent, or alternatively establish comparisons that always end up precisely showing the differences, that existed even between different regions of origin in a same colonizing power.