Tristan Lecture Series The Medieval origins of the European novel

Tristan

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Isabel de Riquer

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  1. Isabel de RiquerIsabel de Riquer

    Doctora en Filología Románica y catedrática de Literatura románica medieval de la Universidad de Barcelona. Su docencia e investigación están orientadas hacia la edición y estudio de textos épicos, líricos y narrativos en francés antiguo y provenzal y su relación con otras literaturas románicas. Ha editado Las poesías del trovador Paulet de Marselha, (1979 y 1996); Alba trovadoresca inédita (1987); Prechs d'amor (1995); Poemes  catalans sobre la caiguda de Constantinopla (1997); Las canciones de Sant Joan de les Abadesses (con Maricarmen Gómez Muntané, 2003). Ha escrito los ensayos El prólogo literario en la Edad Media (con Jesús Montoya 1998); Contra las mujeres: poemas medievales de rechazo y vituperio (con Robert Archer, premio de Ensayo de la UNED 1998); La poesía de los trovadores (con Martín de Riquer 2002); El corazón devorado. Una leyenda desde el siglo XII hasta nuestros días (2007); Mala domna i “dona de mal”: el rebuig de l’estimada infidel per part dels trobadors i dels poetes catalans de l’edat mitjana, (2005); María de Francia y la Querella sobre el “ric ome” (2010); y La caballería de ficción como “educación sentimental” (2010).

    Ha traducido con prólogos y notas La peregrinación de Carlomagno (1984); El caballero del león de Chrétien de Troyes (1988; premio de traducción del Ministerio de Cultura); Nueve lais bretones y La Sombra de Jean Renart (1987); El cuento del grial y sus Continuaciones (con Martín de Riquer, 1989); El libro del Castellano de Coucy: la leyenda del corazón  comido (con Meritxell Simó, 1998); Antonio Pigafetta: El primer viaje alrededor del mundo (1998); Cantar de Roldán (1999); El Novelino (2000). Tomás de Inglaterra, Berol, María de Francia y otros, “Tristán e Iseo” (2001); La poesía de los trovadores (con Martín de Riquer, 2002); y Raul de Cambrai. Cantar de gesta francés (con Anna M. Mussons, 2007).

The tale of Tristan and Iseult has been causing scandal for almost 900 years, since the mid 12th century when a legend that had been in circulation for some time along Europe transmitted vocally by minstrels and bards, was written in French. A legend about two youngsters that became lovers through a potion and died that same day. If this finale was a condemnation of adulterous loves, it also glorified them by making a love so great that it would be remembered forever through a literary monument. The nature of the potion and the non-exemplary behavior of the protagonists received condemnations and harsh criticism, but also enthusiastic praises, allusions, imitations, and rewritings by the most relevant poets, novelists, chroniclers, or composers of those times. The most relevant scenes of the history where represented in objects, ceramics, tapestries, frescoes, miniatures, oil paintings, and drawings. Dozens of versions have been made in all time periods and all languages of history, always the same and always different: philosophical, symbolic, tragic or cryptic; and still nowadays it continues being an object of research by the most rigorous philologists. A tale of a love that has left no one indifferent and has become a myth, because Tristan and Iseult is not a tale linked to the adventures of the knights of the Round Table, which harmonized both love and cavalry, but Tristan is new model of of hero in the stemming medieval literature: the ingenious hero, he who instead of the sword and the spear, uses a thousand tricks and a thousand disguises to meet the queen Iseult.

Regardless of the possible influence from other cultures that the original story could have, Tristan and Iseult is a French polite story, written and incorporated in the most fertile and exceptional period of the European medieval literature. Its structure in chapters, as well as its social environment, its profane ethic of love and the conflict between individual liberty and the institutions, corresponds to a coherent literary aesthetic of a particular time, and is aimed at a particular public. But the extraordinary art of these first writers, from which we know nothing, has managed to keep the attraction of the story until our days because it is basically a story of love and death, timeless, universal, and by no means exemplary. And also, because in the tale there is an exquisite combination of adventure and reflexion, joy and sorrow, violence, realism, disguises, erotism and sweet tenderness.